Tuesday, August 31, 2010

The value of Metering

31 Aug: If you have not started storing the meter readings of your house, Autumn is the time to start, using a spreadsheet to store the principal readings. See how the house performs during the Winter. Using GoogleDocs, you can have the pleasure of putting your meter readings on the web for public viewing!

  • Weekly readings are useful, and you will never again have the annoyance of an "Estimated Bill" - you will be charged correctly. 
  • If you are doing something to the house to improve its performance, the winter is coming soon, and you should start metering, so you can assess its performance compared with last year. 
  • Keep all previous bills, water, gas and electric, so you can build a spreadsheet of previous years performance, and compare with more recent ones.
  • My own house metering for the Peveril Solar House is slightly crazy, as I meter EVERY day and have lots of things to  meter, and lots of consequences to calculate - the entire house is a 'Research Rig', and we are testing the Sunboxes for future manufacturing, so this level of metering is important. Yours do not have to be this complicated. 
  • We also test the Water consumption, as we have a supplementary meter on the Hot water, and a normal supply meter on the Cold. If you do not have a water meter, now is the time to ask for it, and I gather that the water utility will do it for free. Water is a precious resource that costs energy to capture, store, purify and deliver.
  • See the above for the article about GAS metering. My meter is in cubic metres, other peoples are in hundreds of cubic feet. There is a procedure for converting from volume to energy.
It seems tedious, but becomes an easy daily routine, and you will be grateful a year later if you are trying to assess the 'payback' on your insulation, PV, draught proofing, or any other eco things you have tried on the house.

2016 Target to be modified

30 Aug: Water down the 2016 target? Methinks that this was bound to happen:

3 years ago I met David Miliband, then Energy Secretary, at the Hay Festival. He is actually very approachable, although personally, I am more likely to vote for his brother Ed who has been a far more effective Energy Secretary since 2007. In the discussion I told Mr David M that the zero carbon target for 2016 was impossible, it is too tough a standard for 100% of homes to meet, both technically (systems etc), environmentally (microclimate effects in high density cities) and economically (getting builders to do it affordably!). Being in the trade, I know how impossible a target it is to meet in any one of those areas. Unless you build freakishly specialised houses like Hockerton, it ain't gonna happen!
He persisted in parroting the official 2016 line.

This new decision is not a backing down, it seems more like getting to grips with reality. The idea of softening the target was mooted a month ago (27 July), but it would be done by getting builders to pay into a Carbon Offsetting fund, a bit like air travellers paying into a tree planting website to overcome their guilt for flying - but even this is too difficult for housebuilders, it will still put the cost up, and are there enough tree planting schemes to absorb all that money?

The previous 2016 target was as dogmatic and untested as Blair's idea of 50% of the population going to University, but then bumping the fees up astronomically. It is actually considerably more difficult than Kennedy's famous ten year promise to send a man to the moon by 1970.
btw, This is an interesting site: http://www.zerocarbonhub.org/ 

Monday, August 30, 2010

Peveril solar on Youtube

30 Aug: Peveril Sunboxes with scaffolding   It is high time I put up some movie content on YouTube about the Sunboxes project, so here is a first movie - filmed at the end of last March when the boxes started working, but the scaffolding was still up.
    I will do more -

  • The technical bits in the loft, and 
  • The heat pump itself with the panels taken off, and 
  • The switchgear next to the heat pump. 
The movies I took in March of the pump and valves in the loft and of the thermostat and switches next to the heat pump are now obsolete so need re-filming.

Sunday, August 29, 2010

Summer not always good for Sunboxes!

28 August: It seems paradoxical that the Sunboxes do not do so well in late Summer. They are designed to do better in Winter, being driven by the heat pump and being vertically oriented. At this time of year, there are some 'flat' days that we would not get in the Spring.
  There are only two things that stimulate them into action - one is air temperature in the Sunbox above 19ºC. The other is a 5 degsC difference between the air and the groundloop.
  At this time, there have been some cool days when the sun didn't shine, and for Thursday recently, with rain much of the day, the Sunboxes only ran for 6 mins in the entire day. This was because the Heatpump needed heat and got some in the morning. For the rest of the day, it was too cold outside for the boxes to work, but the house was comfortable due to its good insulation, so too warm to need heating. For water, the heat pump didn't need heat again during the day except for brief bursts, and there was so much warmth already in the borehole that it reached temperature before the delta-T was large enough to turn on the Sunboxes. This is likely to occur sometimes in the autumn equinox.
  In the Spring equinox, it was different, the air temperatures outside are still cold, so the heating is on, and the heat pump frequently needs heat from the soil and hence, from the Sunboxes. Having glycol rushing through the panels, the boxes perform well in the spring, even if the air temp inside the box isn't 19º.

Saturday, August 28, 2010

PV Milestone reached!

28 Aug: Today, the PV roof galloped through another milestone, that of 3,000 kWh generation since it was installed - that is magnificent! about 200 more than expected in one year, and still a month to run before the anniversary! Three megawatts sounds like a lot to me, and we've done it in under 11 months.
    And for anybody who still doubts, we had a negative electricity bill this week. This doesn't mean that the house meter goes in reverse, it was negative because they owed for power generation prior to April 1st, and also their previous bill was based on an estimate of normal consumption, when our real daily import at this time of year is abnormally low, less then half that of a year ago.

Thursday, August 26, 2010

Seminar at the Environment Agency

25 Aug: I was invited to talk at a lunchtime seminar for staff at Nottingham's Environment Agency Office. These are for topics linked to Climate Change and Energy shortage. I had only about 25 mins, but covered four subjects.

  • First the West Bridgford Transition group and WB Ecohouses group, and the importance for activists of communicating the message widely, not just doing things privately.
  • The Rushcliffe Solar campaign, to encourage people to take up Photovoltaic panels, to increase the home generation of electricity in Rushcliffe, and for them to benefit from the feed in tariff.
  • The Charging the Earth project, building Sunboxes to augment the performance of the ground source heat pump - appropriate because at this very moment, my research poster on the sunboxes are on view at the SET conference in Shanghai.
  • The Sustainable Tall Buildings course at Nottingham University - where we are trying to teach our students bioclimatic principles for tall buildings - our next project is based in New York, trying to apply Passivhaus principles to the units in a 60 storey structure. 
I was sharing the floor with Penny Poyzer, the owner of the West Bridgford Ecohouse in Patrick Rd. Compared to my technology oriented topics, she was talking about the virtue of growing your own food, plus many observations on green lifestyle. A major learning point from her house is that you can apply extreme levels of insulation to a 120 year old house, and make it airtight enough for heat reclaim to work.
   As a nice human touch, we could see out of the window that the staff in the Environment Agency are indeed growing their own, there was a well managed cuban-style micro farm with members of staff having their own little 2 sqm patch, full of healthy looking vegetables.

Tuesday, August 24, 2010

Good Energy Case Study

24 August: I had a call from the press office of Good Energy, our electricity supplier. They do regular write-ups of case studies of customers. I think it will be written up on their Green Energy Republic webpage, a great source of inspiration for energy aficionados.

     It's a good time for GE to call because it is just after I calculated our annual income+saving at the end of the first year of the PV. The home generation is likely to be 3,200 kWh by 1 October, and our electricity savings likely to be 2,450 kWh. A normal household would expect to save 50%, i.e. about 1,600 kWh a year. As an electrically heated household, our ration of Using to Selling is higher, so we benefit more from the PV than the average user.

She also wanted to know about the Sunbox research, as the blog had been a main source of information and illustrations. In the electricity-only future, the heat pump will the most energy efficient method of heating with electricity, so the research and development with Sunboxes could be significant for making future heat pump installations more practical. As Blaise is in Shanghai at the SET 2010 conference with my research project poster right now, it is a good time to be discussing it!
    The idea of injecting solar heat is, to me, a no-brainer - how could anybody disagree as long as the technology is not too complex, and the running cost not exceeding the gain? The Sunboxes cost a small fraction of the cost of the borehole, and produce a third of the annual requirement for heat from the ground!
   For our proposed development in Surrey, with over 50 sun-seeking houses, plus some offices and shops, we have the backing of the developer to make them all with GSHP and Sunbox technology.
   I also told Claire about the german Passivhaus concept, and our Masters course in Sustainable Tall Buildings - outlined our plans for next semester to design a residential skyscraper in New York extrapolating the Passivhaus concept to the vertical as a participant in the Isover competition. We hope that our scheme will be on show at EcoBuild in 2011. (and those students had better be using Sunboxes!!)
   Coming back to Solar PV, she was very interested in the Rushcliffe Solar project, campaigning to encourage residents of Rushcliffe to install PV.

1 Sept: The Article is here, it's as I finalised it, although in its final form on their website it might be slightly shortened. It is about the Solar PV roof and the Surya Sunbox projects.

Monday, August 23, 2010

Heat Pump maintenance

23 Aug: I still have occasional maintenance issues with the heat pump, and at this time, its mainly to do with too many red-light occasions. This happens mostly 2-3 times a day, some times none, and sometimes 8. It is all stored in the machine log. So this list is boring, but its for the pedantic follower who needs to know every detail.

1. I topped up the glycol reservoir to mid-height, in case a low glycol level was causing a pressure problem - the level does rise and fall with temperature.
2. Checked the strainer on the Hot water circuit - this is nothing to do with it because at this time there is no heating. But it was lovely and clean. Thankyou Virgin Atlantic for the disposable toothbrush, perfect for cleaning it out.
3. Checked the speed setting of the heating circuit pump and found it was at the wrong speed, was at 3, and  ICE tell me that speed 2 is better.
4. I wondered if the loft pump working at only 30W actually represents a resistance to flow if the much more powerful (200W) pump in the GSHP is pushing liquid through the circuit to the panels. I suggested to David Atkins the idea of a pump bypass for the faster flow, but DA says this is unlikely.
5. There is a pressure gauge for the heating circuit that is topped up with mains water pressure, but I always keep this topped up to 1.4 bar.
6. There is an air release valve to the hot water jacket around the hot cylinder, that I regularly open.
7. Lowered the hysteresis on the Hot Water to 4 deg C. Doing cycles little and often.
The Red Light still comes on, but not quite as often. I don't see why it should ever go at this time of year, with no heating to do, and less than an hour a day of workload.

Sunday, August 22, 2010

Comparing Solar Panel and Sunboxes

21 Aug: For the poster I decided to do a very clear comparative diagram of the two possible systems. Neither of them are known to me to exist elsewhere specifically for charging the earth, via a GSHP. If any do, it may have been with the panel and the water tank - please tell me if you know! My call for any other examples of a direct connected Sunbox type system has gone unanswered. Now we are taking the call to the global annual conference of Sustainable Energy Technologies 2010.

Diagrams show the difference between a Sunbox system and one using an industry standard Solar Thermal panel (or evacuated tube array), and the middle one being a hybrid (that doesn't exist) but I might use on a future occasion.

•  Sunboxes are plumbed in as part of the GSHP’s ground loop. Driven by the heat pump, they work at night and in cloudy conditions if there is enough warmth in the air, capture heat from the build up of air temperature - and capture a lot more from the sunshine when it is available. Control is by one smart thermostat, diverter valve and a small circulating pump. Our 4 sqm will capture about 3,000 kWh/yr. They work best vertically on the wall, because they are ‘solariums’, and are optimised to gather heat in equinox and winter when most heat is needed. Even in freezing conditions, the temperature inside the boxes are warmer if there is any brightness in the sky.
If the black panels are un-enclosed, they would work in freezing temperatures, even tolerating ice formation on the black collectors. But I don't see that happening when they are enclosed, and they didn't freeze in the December of 2010.

•  Solar thermal panels require sunlight or very bright conditions, a large insulated dual coil water tank, they have their own loop, pumps and thermostats. According to the SAP calculator, 4 sqm will only put about 1,100 kWh/yr into the tank. They mostly need to be on the roof, I haven't seen a house with vertical ones.
  I guess the reason that figure is so low is that it realistically takes into account that in periods of summer, the system is in stasis for much of the time, and people aren't using a huge volume of hot water. That is a very good reason for using the middle diagram, and trying to share some of that heat for the space heating.

Friday, August 20, 2010

Poster for Shanghai!

20 Aug: My next task is to do a POSTER about the Sunboxes - Blaise is travelling to Shanghai next week, and this is now urgent! It has to be displayed during the conference. So it got done over the weekend, and he will print it in Shanghai. Below is a mid-September 2010 updated version.

September 2010 version
Here is a miniature of the A1 poster. I won't show it in its full size until after the conference.

View Full size Surya Sunbox file 1.30k

Reverse Electricity Bill at last!

17 Aug: D-Nicholson-Cole writes: Last week, I had an electricity bill from my supplier, Good Energy.
 This is a day I have waited for more than a year since I started metering, tuning, installing etc. The Reverse bill! 
   Actually we didn't at first get a reverse bill, we had an electricity bill for £ 36 pounds from Good Energy. They had a real reading for 16 June, and an estimated one for 16 August. It was estimated at 1033 kWh, but the actual consumption in that time was 350 kWh, largely thanks to the Photovoltaic Roof. In the same two months, they also decided to credit us for all the solar electricity that we had generated and 'sold' from 1 October 2009 to 1 April 2010, at pre-feed in tariff rates.
   So when things are added and subtracted, it turns into a bill for Minus 76 pounds!
   The mathematical Minus-result arises because the credits and the payments are in one single bill. I am hoping that when the first Feed in Tariff payments are made they will be a separate payment, so that we don't get negative bills for the next 25 years! My brother in law in Yorkshire, with a 3 kW array facing south has just received a cheque from his supplier for £ 550 comprising the feed in tariff and estimated sales from 1 April 2010 to 17 Aug 2010.

Monday, August 16, 2010

More reflections on Performance

16 August: The thermal comparison of a few days ago is slightly unfair, as I thought about it more, and discussed with Chris Wood.
    The final end product of most Solar Thermal panels is the Hot water that comes from your tap. The 1,100 kWh for the 4sqm of roof mounted flat panel takes the equation to the final product - it must take account of Stasis in the tank, and that people are not having baths all the time.
    The wall mounted Surya sunboxes may produce 3,000 kWh if we have a good year, and they have the advantage that they also contribute to space heating. However, for any of that heat to come out of a tap in the form of hot water, it has to be reprocessed by the heat pump. It is difficult to equate, but if the COP is 2.0 or 2.6, we should reduce it by a third, so that might still put the Sunbox production at about 2,200 useful, still twice that of the conventional solar thermal panel.
   Chris also points out that if you had a solar thermal panel and used heat from the storage tank for a heat pump that was heating the house, it can do better. If it never experienced stasis because it was sending heat to a tank from which heat was being removed by the heatpump, it would have a far better output with the much improved delta-T. However, this heat would then still have to be transformed by the heatpump to make it useful in the house. The moment you let the temperature rise in the tank to get hot water, you would have a poorer delta-T for the panel, and would be taking less to heat the house. And this whole process still needs a duplicate very large copper insulated tank and two loops. Overall... heating the ground is easy because there is always a beneficial delta-T as you cannot heat 8,000 tons of clay much more than a couple of degrees.

So I still think that the Suryas win.... hehe.... we will need a whole winter of readings to be sure about my projected figures.

Open Day at Peveril Solar

15 August: We had the EvoEnergy open day. I forgot to count, but estimate that about 20 people called round. Appropriately, it was a nice sunny day, with about 14 kWh harvested. Nicola, Jessica and Aidan joined us from Evo.
  We started the session out on the field looking at the house from the south east. Everybody arrived at 12, and nobody came later, so it became a single long session with plenty of time for questions.

Here is my Powerpoint for the Open Day, although I didn't get a chance to deliver it.

Most people were there for their interest in Photovoltaic, but there was also interest in the Surya sunboxes for those who were considering heatpumps, especially now that I am more aware of their performance, and contribution.
   There was one couple who already have a heat pump, but it is air source, and every year it is unable to cope in the colder parts of the winter, so they have a 'bivalent' system, meaning that it switches over to the oil central heating when the ASHP gives up. I wish they had a ground source like mine, so that it could bivalently switch over to Sunboxes like the one in Peveril Solar house!

Performance comparison of Solar Thermal

15 Aug 2010: I was looking for information about calculation of output from panels based on the SAP assessment system. This site, http://www.valentin.de/calculation/sap/  is a useful one which calculates output from solar thermal panels for water heating for the UK generally.

 I am seriously delighted and amazed!
1. The Valentin/Sap calculator indicates that Flat Plate panels on the roof for water heating will collect 1,000-1,100 kWh in a year - (about the same for evacuated tubes or flat plate). I think this low figure arises from the assumption that in summer, the tank reaches temperature quickly, and unless someone has a shower or a bath, no more heat can be stored in the tank.

2. My Surya Sunbox panels are 4 sqm and put down an average of about 9.5 kWh a day, and will continue do so so through the winter because they work on Delta-T - they will work even in cold weather so long as the heat pump provides a temperature difference. They continue to put heat into a cold thermal mass, the deep ground, so they can never reach stasis. That is likely to total about 3,000 kWh in a year - I very much hope so.

Surya Sunbox panels are more efficient!
What this appears to mean is that:
•  over the year my Surya panels appear to collect THREE times as much energy as a professional Flat Plate panel.
As they can do this, and do not need an intermediate copper hot water tank, that makes them even more cost effective. Another benefit is that the Surya panels are better on the wall, as they prefer an airspace next to a wall with high thermal capacity - and they work better in winter when the heat is needed. It frees up all the roof for PV! It has always seemed obvious to me that a water tank is so small relative to the deep ground that any useful heat it had would be rapidly downloaded by the GSHP and no more would be coming fast enough to be useful - whereas the Sunboxes will work at low temperature. It is easier to find somewhere for one cubic metre externally than for a 300 litre tank of water within the house. Only one pump and thermostat are needed, whereas a tank would need to have two coils, with a pump and thermostat in each loop.

Could we manage with more panels?
I now wish I had space for 6 or 8 sqm of panel on my south wall. It would be great to have 12 panels, and put down 9,000 - equivalent to the entire heating requirement for the house. I do not think there is a linear relationship - delivery of heat to the ground depends on the delta-T, and if you warm up the ground enough it would no longer accept further heat unless it is a notably higher temperature. As the liquid moved through the panels, it would rapidly reach the optimum temperature - and for the remaining panels would not pick up much more. With my 4 panels working as two pairs, I guess that there isn't time or space for dead spots or flat spots to appear.
   No matter how many you put down, you still need the heat pump to get them back up, so adding more would not reduce the electricity to zero. However, the hope is that heating cycles will be faster and more efficient, and will reduce the workload enough to reduce the electric consumption more than in 2009-2010.
  Having 12 sqm would increase the risk of the heat escaping to the greater mass of surrounding soil, as one could build up the temperature enough for conductive heatloss to take that heat away altogether. My 4 sqm of panels put down 3,000, and the heat pump needs to get 9,000 up during the year. The Push-Pull ratio of 1 to 3 means that none of the 3,000 has a chance to escape, making it 100% efficient (apart from pump costs which are mostly PV powered).

Friday, August 13, 2010

Metering Anniversary - 30% saving!

13 August: It's an anniversary of sorts - a Metering one! There were three major metering time points in the year - 13 August 2009 when serious daily metering began, 1 October 2009 when the PV Solar roof kicked in and began to reduce our electricity consumption, and 8th March 2010, when the Surya Sunboxes began to work.
  In the two previous August-August years, our import had been 8500 kWhr in each year, close enough, causing a likely annual electricity bill of about £1156 including VAT.
  In the year Aug'09 to Aug'10 , there has been as astonishing reduction, despite the cold winter. We have used precisely 6220 kWh in the same period! - for all heating, hotwater, cooking, power, lighting. That is 2280 kWh off the previous amount, and will be an annual bill of £860 in the same period - a £300 saving in one year.

I guess there are four things at work here:
 1. Metering: When you start metering daily, the competitive instinct cuts in and you economise more, to see if you can maintain low figures - that means fewer lights on, use power when the roof is working, etc. I keep a simplified weather record too, so I can recognise when cold/ cloudy/ hot/ sunny days affect the readings.
 2. Photovoltaic: The PV contribution is very good, although we didn't start it until Oct '09, at the start of the Winter, during which it is sometimes less than 1 kWh in an entire day. The Summer has been good, but doesn't account for as much as 2300 kWh!
 3. Sunboxes: they were not working until mid March'10, and was followed by a mild spell and warm April and May. So it is difficult to know how much contribution they have made until next year. But they must have made some, as the heat pump power consumption seems to be lower - but as it is only doing hot water at the moment, we will not know fully until the winter.
 4. Heatpump:  I have 'tuned' the ground source heatpump (GSHP) -  installed switches to confuse the thermostat or stop the compressor, immaculate work in insulating the internal water tank, and mastering the internal time clock to be able to leave the GSHP running but have it not actually generating heat.

I know there were bad days last winter when the heat pump over heated, or when we needed heat on a day when there had been heavy dark cloud. Hopefully, the effect of the sunbox will reduce consumption on those days.
We expect further savings in the coming year.... We are going into the next Aug-Aug year with all systems operational!
  The only thing remaining to do on the present setup is to add a time clock so that the fake external thermostat is automatically on during the night, and off by day. The other item, the Savita Sunbox, I might do, or might fit it to another house instead of this one.
  The next main metering anniversary point will be 1st October - unless we have a very cold September, I can predict now that the annual total 1 Oct- 1 Oct is likely to be more like 6,050 kWh, a saving of 2,450 in one year - 30%.
[October Postscript: The last week of September was horrible and the heating season started briefly on about the 16th, and became daily from about the 23rd onwards. The annual electric import total 1 Oct-1 Oct was 6,080 kWh, which is still pretty good!]

Wednesday, August 4, 2010

Open Day at Peveril Solar house

We have an Open Day on Sunday AUGUST 15 at the Peveril Solar house. Visitors can call between 12 and 2 pm. The focus is on Photovoltaic systems - home generation - how it might fit, how the feed in tariff works, what it might cost, how the payback will work, what the maintenance and management involve.
There will be experts on hand to explain anything. Let's hope we have a sunnier day than the ones we have had in the second half of July.

As I don't want to put the address directly on the blog, please email RushcliffeSolar@gmail.com to warn us that you would like to come and we will give the address detail. We would prefer people to come all at the start, 1200 if possible. So, if you arrive later, we may have started without you. Refreshments are provided.
(By the way, I am giving up the Forest-Leeds first game of the season for this.... )

This house offers:
4 kW Photovoltaic roof, the largest possible under the Feed in Tariff, with 22 panels.
Ground source Heat pump, drawing from twin 48m boreholes.
• Uniquely designed and built Solar thermal panels that heat the ground under the house, hence heat the house.
Light Tube bringing sunshine into the centre of the house.
Induction Hob, cooking technology that is highly energy efficient.
• Liquid circulating Underfloor heating
• Cuban style micro-farm for vegetable growing.

We shall of course mention the other main systems in the house, the Ground Source Heat Pump and the Surya Sunboxes augmenting the pump, but only for those who are interested. It is difficult to adapt an existing house to a GSHP (most go for Air Source), but for Newbuild houses, Ground Source is a more thorough solution - and if you have a GSHP, it's my belief you should hybridise the sources.

Monday, August 2, 2010

Energy Plan for the UK 2050

2 August: The government's Department of Energy and Climate Change, with Chris Huhne as Energy secretary, have published their Energy Plan 2050.
    I am glad they have done this, as we at the Dept of Built Environment are frequently talking about 2050 as a target. A long term target requires a different sort of thinking to short terms like 2012 and 2016, payback calculations, tariffs and the like - these are all small steps, but what will it really be like in forty years time? Society, living patterns and the energy economy will be radically different by 2050 (for those of us still here....). I am not envisaging a world of Dan Dare, jetpacks and travelators, more the opposite - far more reliance on bicycles and local farming and other forms of localism than we can now imagine - and possibly with regular power cuts in some areas.
   That is the Energy and Food-Water picture. If Climate Change raises sea levels, that is another whole thing to worry about. Energy shortage is an immediate risk facing us which even the most hardened climate change denier is unable to deny.
   If we could take one of these imaginary jetpacks and take a flight over England in 2050, we would see photoelectric roofs everywhere, rather like you now see water tanks on all rural houses in Australian outback. It will become a necessity for new houses, indeed, it is built into the 2016 regulations for new houses. Distributed home generation is necessary to reduce the great transmission losses from the large central generating stations. Houses built between 2016 and 2050 will face predominantly south to make their roofs more convertible to PV. Developers will recognise it as a necessity to help them sell the houses. Solar thermal is becoming increasingly visible in 2010, but will be nearly universal a decade from now.
   Rainwater catchment will have become a necessity, as will vastly better insulation (which you can't see from your jetpack.... ) You would see more gardens turned over to vegetable growing than now - the trend is already happening. Lifestyle changes will have been forced onto us, such as reduced expectations of easy travel.
  The report can be downloaded as a 5 meg PDF from the page:
and seems very thorough, with sections on Lighting, Transport, Industry, Space and Water heating, cooling, Agriculture, BioEnergy, Waste, Nuclear, Fossil fuel carbon capture, Onshore wind, Offshore wind, Tidal energy, Wave energy, Microgeneration (thats us folks!), Geothermal electricity, Hydropower, Electricity balancing, Negative emissions and Electricity imports. The report  starts with pathways towards this, and concludes with a discussion of costs.

  Page 94 brings in the discussion of Space and Water heating. Heat pumps get high profile coverage later in the section.
  Page 212 brings in the discussion of Microgeneration, with PV a couple of pages later. It is clear that up to 2009 (the announcement of the Feed in Tariff) the UK is lagging behind Europe and the rest of the world.

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